Military Compensation Background Papers
These documents are a legislative and regulatory history of military compensation, benefits and manpower cost items. They serve as an authoritative reference tool for all researchers interested in the U.S. military compensation system.
Quadrennial Reviews of Military Compensation
Every four years, the Department of Defense commissions a complete review of compensation principles and concepts for members of the armed forces.
Valuation of the Military Retirement System Reports
The Department of Defense Office of the Actuary publishes annual valuations of the military retirement system that include projecting personnel, pay and benefits, and calculating annual Department of Defense contribution costs, as well as determining program unfunded liabilities and their amortizations.
Statistical Reports on the Military Retirement System
The Department of Defense Office of the Actuary publishes annual reports that compile data primarily from the retiree pay and survivor pay files, sorting and compiling data by various categories such as service, rank, type of retirement and mailing address of the retiree.
The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit and nonpartisan research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous.
- Asch, Hosek, Kavanagh and Mattock, “Retention, Incentives, and DoD Experience Under the 40-Year Military Pay Table,” Aug. 3, 2016 – In 2015, the Senate Armed Services Committee requested that the Department of Defense review the 40-year pay table and report on whether it is still necessary for retaining experienced personnel or whether such retention could be equally achieved with a 30-year pay table. RAND researchers were asked to assist in this review and this report documents their analysis.
- Asch, Mattock and Hosek, “Reforming Military Retirement: Analysis in Support of the Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization Commission,” July 17, 2015 – This report details the analysis conducted in support of the congressionally-mandated Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization Commission to review the military compensation and retirement systems and make recommendations to modernize them.
- Bond, Lewis, Leonard, Pollak, Guo and Rostker, “Tour Lengths, Permanent Changes of Station, and Alternatives for Savings and Improved Stability,” Feb. 8, 2016 – This report examines the workings of permanent change of station programs with the goal of determining the potential for savings that could accrue from reducing the total number of permanent changes of station by increasing the average amount of time between them.
- Asch, Hosek and Mattock, “Toward Meaningful Military Compensation Reform: Research in Support of DoD's Review,” Nov. 12, 2014 – This report summarizes research in support of the Office of the Secretary of Defense’s working group that conducted a comprehensive review of military compensation, focusing on retirement compensation.
- Asch, Mattock and Hosek, “A New Tool for Assessing Workforce Management Policies Over Time: Extending the Dynamic Retention Model,” Aug. 26, 2013 – The research in this report extends the dynamic retention model to allow simulations of the effects of alternative policies both in the steady state and in the transition to the steady state. It also shows the effects of alternative implementation strategies and how different policies can affect how quickly the population and costs move toward the new steady state.
- Asch, Hosek and Mattock, “A Policy Analysis of Reserve Retirement Reform,” Jan. 30, 2013 – This report compares the reserve and active retirement systems, discusses the importance of structuring compensation to enable flexibility in managing active and reserve manpower, describes how the debate over reserve retirement reform had differed from Active Component retirement reform debate, and considers obstacles to reform and how they might be overcome.
- Buddinand Han, “Is Military Disability Compensation Adequate to Offset Civilian Earnings Losses from Service-Connected Disabilities?” Aug. 8, 2012 – This research examines the adequacy of disability compensation to offset the reduction in civilian earnings opportunities that are associated with service-connected disabilities.
- Hosek, Asch and Mattock, “Should the Increase in Military Pay Be Slowed?” July 30, 2012 – This report discusses several approaches to slowing the rate of increase in military pay, including a one-time increase in basic pay set at half a percentage point below the Employment Cost Index, a one-year freeze in basic pay and a series of below-Employment Cost Index increases, such as index minus half a percentage point for four years.
- Mattock, Hosek and Asch, “Reserve Participation and Cost Under a New Approach to Reserve Compensation,” June 28, 2012 – This report analyzes the new compensation policy proposed by the 11th Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation to pay reservists daily basic pay and allowances equal to Active Component members, regardless of type of duty.
- Asch, Heaton, Hosek, Martorell, Simon and Warner, “Cash Incentives and Military Enlistment, Attrition and Reenlistment,” May 14, 2010 – This report provides the results of an empirical analysis to determine whether enlistment and reenlistment bonuses were effective in maintaining or increasing the supply of personnel to the armed forces.
- Buddin and Kapur, “An Analysis of Military Disability Compensation,” Oct. 10, 2005 – This study analyzes features of the military disability compensation system and compares the system with benefits available through civilian programs designed to help employees injured in the workplace. The study also compares the civilian labor market outcomes of disabled retirees with those of similar other retirees who are not disabled.
Total Force Manpower and Analysis Reports
Defense Manpower Requirements Reports
These annual reports, submitted in accordance with section 115a of title 10, United States Code, explain the Department of Defense manpower requirements as reflected in the president’s annual budget request.
Inherently Governmental/Commercial Activities (IG/CA) Inventory
The IG/CA is used to comply with statutory and regulatory reporting requirements, including requirements established by the Federal Activities Inventory Reform (FAIR) Act and in Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-76. The IG/CA Inventory identifies and categorizes, as either inherently governmental or commercial activities, all appropriated-fund military and civilian manpower authorizations (including working capital). It is seen as a means of communicating the size and composition of the DoD's federal workforce.
Inventory of Contracted Services Reports
These Inventory of Contracted Services reports, submitted annually in accordance with section 2330a of title 10, United States Code, document contracted services for or on behalf of the Department of Defense.
Total Force Manpower and Resources-sponsored Studies and Reports
These reports and studies, predominantly published by Federal Funded Research and Development Centers, were sponsored by the Office of Total Force Manpower and Resources. In addition, this section contains selected reports completed by the Office of Total Force Manpower and Resources.
- IDA Report - Revisiting the Criteria for Military Essentiality in Total Force Manpower Management, April 2019
- IDA Report - Space Force Manpower Requirements Designation, February 2019 (PDF)
- CNA Report - DoD Function Codes: Assessment of Currency and Relevancy, April 2019 (PDF)
- IDA Report - Military Workforce Mix, December 2018 (PDF)
- IDA Report - Managing the Total Force: Using Civilianization to Militarize the Military, November 2018 (PDF)
- IDA Report - Enhancing the Readiness of Expeditionary, Training, and Medical Workforces Through Workforce Mix Reforms, September 2018 (PDF)
- IDA Report - Medical Total Force Management: Assessing Readiness and Cost, May 2018 (PDF)
- IDA Research Insights - Staffing for Unmanned Aircraft Systems, September 2017 (PDF)
- IDA Report - A Brief History of Military-to-Civilian Conversions in the Department of Defense, 1965-2015 March 2017 (PDF)
- IDA Research Insights - Staffing for Staffing for Cyberspace Operations, September 2016 (PDF)
- IDA Report - Staffing for Staffing for Cyberspace Operations: Summary of Analysis, August 2016 (PDF)
- IDA Report - Staffing for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Operations, June 2016 (PDF)
- RAND Report - U.S. Department of Defense Experiences with Substituting Government Employees for Military Personnel: Challenges and Opportunities, June 2016 (PDF)
- TFM&RS Study - Changing Face of the DoD Officer Corps 1973 – 2015: Active Duty Officer Strength Compared by Service, Grade, and Primary DoD Occupation Code April 2016 (PDF)
IDA Report - Medical Total Force Management, May 2014 (PDF)
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Conversion of Government Work to Private Sector Performance — “Outsourcing”
Conversion of Contracted Services to Government Performance — “Insourcing”
These memorandum, issuances and documents are the policies and procedures governing, and applicable to, the conversion of currently or previously contracted services to government performance (e.g., insourcing).
General Total Force Manpower Policy and Procedures
These memorandum, issuance and documents provide the overarching policies and procedures addressing Total Force Manpower management and resources.
Manpower Management Process Charts and Infographics
These charts and infographics demonstrate the process of Total Force Manpower management and workforce mix.
Total Force Management Governing Statutes
These statutes are those most applicable and relevant to Total Force mix and manpower management in the Department of Defense.